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how much it will stretch) as a result of a given amount of stress.The Young's Modulus E of a material is calculated as: The values for stress and strain must be taken at as low a stress level as possible, provided a difference in the length of the sample can be measured.For example, if you take an elastic band and stretch it so that it is twice longer than initially, then the strain will be equal to 1 (100%). L₁ denotes the initial length, L₂ - the final length, and ΔL is the change in length. Stress, on the other hand, is the measure of pressure that the particles of a material exert on each other.
On a stress strain graph beyond the yield point (or elastic limit) the material will no longer return to its original length. Therefore the yield stress is the level of stress at which a material will deform permanently. Strain is a measure of how much an object is being stretched.
The formula for strain is: is the original length of a bar being stretched, and l is its length after it has been stretched.
Materials for which Hooke's law is a useful approximation are known as linear-elastic, or 'elastic materials'.
In this region (between points 2 and 3), the rate at which extension is increasing is going up, and the material has passed the elastic limit - it will no longer return to its original shape when the load is removed, and will no undergo plastic (permanent) deformation.
A numerical-analytical approach to solving problems on the stress–strain state of quadrangular plates of complex shape is proposed.
The governing system of equations is presented in new orthogonal coordinates using transformations that take into account the plate geometry.
It is different from the pressure, though; when calculating stress, the area considered must be so small that the analyzed particles are assumed to be homogeneous.
If we take into account a bigger area, the calculated stress is usually the average value.
The material will now 'give' and extend more under less force.
At point 3, the material has been fractured and so no further measurements can be taken.