The main positive economic impacts of sustainable (coastal) tourism are: contributions to government revenues,foreign exchange earnings, generation of employment and business opportunities.Further information on economic contributions of tourism can be found on the website of the World Travel and Tourism Council.Change of local identity and values: Figure 4: UNWTO's Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.6 billion by the year 2020.
For example, 85% of the 1.8 million people who visit Australia's Great Barrier Reef are concentrated in two small areas, Cairns and the Whitsunday Islands, which together have a human population of just 130,000 or so.
In many areas, massive new tourist developments have been built - including airports, marinas, resorts, and golf courses.
by competing with wildlife for habitat and natural resources.
More specifically, negative impacts on biodiversity can be caused by various factors.
Tourism can also add to the consumption of seafood in an area, putting pressure on local fish populations and sometimes contributing to overfishing.
Collection of corals, shells, and other marine souvenirs - either by individual tourists, or local people who then sell the souvenirs to tourists - also has a detrimental effect on the local environment.While world international tourist arrivals in the period 1990 – 1999 grew at an accumulative annual rate of 4.2%, that of cruises did by 7.7%.In 1990 there were 4.5 million international cruise arrivals which had increased to a number of 8.7 million in 1999.Source: Sustainable Tourism Management in Coastal Areas, Eugenio Yunis 2001 Tourism can create great pressure on local resources such as energy, food, land and water that may already be in short supply.According to the Third Assessment of Europe’s environment (EEA, 2003 Tourism can cause loss of biodiversity in many ways, e.g.The increased popularity of cruise ships has also adversely affected the marine environment.Carrying up to 4,000 passengers and crew, these enormous floating towns are a major source of marine pollution through the dumping of garbage and untreated sewage at sea, and the release of other shipping-related pollutants.Source WWF on Tourism Pressure and European Environment Agency on Tourism A development that has turned out to be a severe problem for many coastal areas in the last decade is the increase in cruise ship tourism.The cruise ship business is the segment that has grown most rapidly during the last decade. This article discusses the issues and impacts associated with coastal tourism, the current status of related environmental affairs and a forecast of tourism in the future.The article concludes by providing suggestions for future management of coastal tourism.