What happens is that the individual identifies with the lost person, so that repressed anger towards the lost person is directed inwards towards the self. Thus, the depressive phase occurs when the individual’s super-ego or conscience is dominant.
The inner directed anger reduces the individual’s self-esteem, and makes him/her vulnerable to experiencing depression in the future. In contrast, the manic phase occurs when the individual’s ego or rational mind asserts itself, and s/he feels control.
For example, many of its central features cannot be operationally defined with sufficient precision to allow empirical investigation.
Mendelson (1990) concluded his review of psychoanalytic theories of depression by stating: 'A striking feature of the impressionistic pictures of depression painted by many writers is that they have the flavor of art rather than of science and may well represent profound personal intuitions as much as they depict they raw clinical data' (p. Another criticism concerns the psychanalytic emphasis on unconscious, intrapsychic processes and early childhood experience as being limiting in that they cause clinicians to overlook additional aspects of depression.
For example, classical conditioning proposes depression is learned through associating certain stimuli with negative emotional states.
Social learning theory states behavior is learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement.For example, Beck's (1983) model of depression was influenced by psychoanalytic ideas such as the loss of self-esteem (re: Beck's negative view of self), object loss (re: the importance of loss events), external narcissistic deprivation (re: hypersensitivity to loss of social resources) and oral personality (re: sociotropic personality).However, although being highly influential, psychoanalytic theories are difficult to test scientifically.Depending on how data are gathered and how diagnoses are made, as many as 27% of some population groups may be suffering from depression at any one time (NIMH, 2001; data for older adults).Behaviorism emphasizes the importance of the environment in shaping behavior.In order to avoid loss turning into depression, the individual needs to engage in a period of mourning work, during which s/he recalls memories of the lost one.This allows the individual to separate him/herself from the lost person, and so reduce the inner-directed anger.Depression results from systematic negative bias in thinking processes.Emotional, behavioral (and possibly physical) symptoms result from cognitive abnormality.This means that depressed patients think differently to clinically normal people. He studied people suffering from depression and found that they appraised events in a negative way.The cognitive approach also assumes changes in thinking precede (i.e. Beck (1967) identified three mechanisms that he thought were responsible for depression: The cognitive triad are three forms of negative (i.e.