Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression analysis.
Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs.
In addition, results in a clinical context have indicated that marital discord, including the threat of separation or divorce and dissatisfaction in a relationship, were relatively common among the problem gamblers’ families [2, 12].
Problem-gambling prevalence has been found to be higher among Swedish male CSOs compared with females .
There is also evidence of gender differences, which should be taken into account in prevention and developing support for gambling problems .
Concerned significant others (CSOs) refer to people in the surrounding environment of a person who has gambling problems [2, 3, 9].In Sweden, Svensson and colleagues  studied CSOs by using a somewhat wider and more open approach and identified 18.2% of the population as CSOs .However, the Swedish study did not define how the CSOs were related to the person who was considered to have or to have had gambling problems.Similarly to the Norwegian study, a Swedish population study found more CSOs in the age groups 18–24 years and 25–44 compared to other age groups .Lower level of education and in particular mid-level education have been associated with being a CSO .Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO.The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001).Most compulsive gamblers will answer 'Yes' to at least 7 of these questions.If you feel you might be a compulsive gambler, have a gambling problem or have a desire to stop gambling, you can speak to someone right now by clicking here Or click this link to find a Gamblers Anonymous meeting close to where you are.Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers.The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs.