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Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass.Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas.
According to the results of a study published in PLOS Medicine, the "exaggerated and inappropriate coverage of research findings in the news media" is ultimately related to inaccurately reporting or over-interpreting research results in many abstract conclusions.
A study published in JAMA concluded that "inconsistencies in data between abstract and body and reporting of data and other information solely in the abstract are relatively common and that a simple educational intervention directed to the author is ineffective in reducing that frequency." Other "studies comparing the accuracy of information reported in a journal abstract with that reported in the text of the full publication have found claims that are inconsistent with, or missing from, the body of the full article." However, publishers of scientific articles invariably make abstracts freely available, even when the article itself is not.
Once papers are chosen based on the abstract, they must be read carefully to be evaluated for relevance.
It is generally agreed that one must not base reference citations on the abstract alone, but the content of an entire paper.
An abstract may or may not have the section title of "abstract" explicitly listed as an antecedent to content.
Abstracts are typically sectioned logically as an overview of what appears in the paper, with any of the following subheadings: Background, Introduction, Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions.
Many scientific publishers currently encourage authors to supplement their articles with graphical abstracts, in the hope that such a convenient visual summary will facilitate readers with a clearer outline of papers that are of interest and will result in improved overall visibility of the respective publication.
However, the validity of this assumption has not been thoroughly studied, and a recent study statistically comparing publications with or without graphical abstracts with regard to several output parameters reflecting visibility failed to demonstrate an effectiveness of graphical abstracts for attracting attention to scientific publications.
Abstracts in which these subheadings are explicitly given are often called structured abstracts.
Abstracts that comprise one paragraph (no explicit subheadings) are often called unstructured abstracts.