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In the interconnected short sketches of (1896), Scott introduced psychological realism into narrative form, eulogizing rural Quebec life on the verge of urban change.
By expanding continentally through Cree, Blackfoot, and Métis lands, however, this ostensibly orderly version of Canada would have to face a series of alternatives with long-term impact: Louis Riel's resistance movements, an increase in non-British immigration, and the continuing cross-border threat, and appeal, of the USA.
With growing literacy and increasing technology came a series of challenges to received notions of cultural uniformity.
With Confederation came immediate calls for Maritime separation but also a quickened interest in the growth of a national culture.
Journalists and academic essayists earnestly disputed Canada's political destiny.
In , which was later adopted in 1921 as the national motto, A Mare Usque Ad Mari.
In 1873, the newly formed North-West Mounted Police would carry order west and north.Male writers, too, achieved some popular success internationally, though many are now largely forgotten. James de Mille's speculative Timber Trade History) - instead of relying on the romantic glow of an imaginary past. Campbell together reshaped poetry from the 1880s till the 1920s.Grant Allen and Albert Hickman featured detectives and the paranormal. Many literary historians still regard the members of "Confederation Group" as the dominant literary figures of the late 19th century. While they differed from each other--Carman captivated by song rhythms and the "Unitrinianism" of Mary Perry King, Scott holding to a belief that the First Nations were "a dying race," Roberts often celebratory, Lampman often dour--they were all influenced by the later English Romantic poets and the American Transcendentalists.She also went on to write a series of comedies of manners, set in India, Canada, the USA and England, each book revealing distinctions of national character and conventions that shaped and limited gender roles. Women were active in the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the Canadian Women's Press Club, the Women's Political Equality League, and the Toronto Women's Literary Club (est. Emily Howard Stowe as a centre of suffragist reform). Gordon), in a series of bestselling novels based in Glengarry County, combined a version of manliness with a commitment to Presbyterian morality that came to be called "Muscular Christianity." Robert Barr and Gilbert Parker penned adventures of war and wilderness.Anna Leonowens (made famous as the title figure in , the poetry of Isabella Valancy Crawford and Marjorie Pickthall, the fiction of Joanna Wood and Lily Dougall: all expressed feminist commitments. Robert Service, still in print and widely enjoyed, published several volumes of rolling rhymes of the Yukon. Partly in response to such enterprises, the journalist Peter Mc Arthur wittily satirized social pretensions, and the economist Stephen Leacock parodied literary fads, among them the mannered comedies, melodramas, and historical romances that had by then become clichés.The Social Gospel movement would have greater impact on society in the 1920s and 1930s, with the formation of the United Church of Canada and the CCF.A second set of debates fastened on education and political options.With social change, including advanced education for women (in 1875 Mount Allison was the first university in the British Empire to award a woman a bachelor's degree), women extended their influence in literature and the community (Women and Education, Status of Women).Female editors and journalists--among them Alice Jones, Agnes Maule Machar, Sara Jeannette Duncan, Kit Coleman, Jean Mc Ilwraith, Florence Randal Livesay, and Nellie Mc Clung, all active poets or novelists as well--wrote variously about bicycles, independent travel, foreign wars, local politics, and women's rights (.Phillips Thompson pointedly argued that the labouring class was largely excluded from prevailing theories of progress. Outside the country, the Canadian border was frequently represented as a guarantee of justice and freedom: for example, as "Jordan, the crossing to the Promised Land" in African-American song, and as the protective "Medicine Line" to Blackfoot, Lakota, and other Indigenous nations.The short fiction writer Susan Frances Harrison insisted that her work be published in Canada because foreign publishers kept distorting the local idiom she was using. Though 19th century Black tales in Canada were not collected till 1931, folksong and folktale (Folklore) did record many of the events of the time; several songs allude to the Red River Rebellion and the Klondike Gold Rush.